End of pass laws for south africa urged by panel the new. On june 16, 1976, up to 10,000 black schoolchildren, inspired by new tenets of black. The national parliament began repealing these laws in the 1980s. Sep, 1985 the continuing large number of arrests for pass law violations 200,000 to 300,000 a year have been interpreted by civil rights activists as a sign of the failure of the laws to curb black.
South african pass laws were a major component of apartheid that focused on separating south african indian, colored, and black african citizens according to their race. A pass book without a valid entry then allowed officials to arrest and imprison the bearer of the pass. Racial segregation, sanctioned by law, was widely practiced in south africa before 1948, but the national party, which gained office that year, extended the policy and gave it the name apartheid. This was done to promote the supposed superiority of whites and to establish the minority white reg. Any black person found outside the allowed residential area without a pass from an employer, a magistrate, missionary, field cornet or principal chief could be arrested. Primary source accounts of history add an unmatched authenticity to this series. What happened automatically before was now codified in law and intensified when possible. The pass law was abolished in 1952, only to be replaced by a 96page document, named a reference book.
Postapartheid and living law perspectives provides a clear introduction to indigenous law in south africa. Other laws forbade most social contacts between the races, authorized segregated public facilities, established separate educational standards, restricted each race to certain types of jobs. Tellingly, the book has no place to note a persons voluntary departure from a job. He is the author of six books in the john russell espionage series, set in wwii berlin. The resistance to the pass law led to many thousands of arrests and was the spark that ignited the sharpeville massacre on 21 march 1960, and led to the arrest of robert. The pass book and the sharpville massacre i am choosing to write about this today because yesterday i received my identity document book for south africa. South africans disobey apartheid laws defiance of unjust laws campaign, 19521953. In 1956 the apartheid government removed the right of africans to appeal to the courts against removal from an urban area. The pass laws act of 1952 required black south africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, known as a dompas, everywhere and at all times. Antiapartheid protests continued as life for black south africans became more and more dire under apartheid. The hated dompas 2 x apartheid era artifacts auction. Dompas had all their information in it, including their. Apartheid, international law, and the occupied palestinian.
The system of pass laws was formally repealed retroactive on april 23, 1986, with the abolition of influx control act. The pass laws said that all black south africans older than 16 had to carry their pass book, called a dompas, wherever they went. The defiance of unjust laws campaign had not been successful and the further movement against apartheid would go on for several more decades. In south africa, pass laws were a form of internal passport system designed to segregate the.
Laws from south africas apartheid era in may of 1902 the peace of vereeniging was signed between boer forces and the british putting an end to a set of wars between the two sides. Apartheid law after the second world war, the national party came to power in 1948 on a ticket of racial segregation and support for poor afrikaners. Nonetheless there was little freedom for the poor to move from their squatter camps or township houses and most children still went to third. After a series of protests, international pressure and the weakening of the apartheid system, pass laws were abolished in 1986. The system was used to deny many basic rights to nonwhite people, mainly black people who lived in south africa. Two years later, police and local authorities were empowered to raid, without search warrant, any dwelling in search of illegal african residents. Apartheid, international law, and the occupied palestinian territory 869 reminiscent of pass laws under apartheid south africa. Explaining information make sure you can read about south african pass laws and explain them correctly understanding key ideas make sure you can. South africans disobey apartheid laws defiance of unjust.
To answer this accurately and concisely and without including answers to leading questions not asked then the answer must be capital punishment the death sentence and which was by hangi. In 1952, the government passed an even more stringent law that required all african men age 16 and over to carry a reference book replacing. Everything from the republics race classification, homeland, and pass law policies, to detailed statistics of south african education, housing, and transport. End of pass laws for south africa urged by panel the. Pass laws, aspect of apartheid blacks hate most, bring despair. The word apartheid means separateness in the afrikaans language. The text also gives historical background and explores what. The text provides a structure for understanding the nature and overarching system of customary law, illustrating its distinctness in relation to other areas of law, and exploring the dynamic precepts. Under apartheid, pass laws were designed to control the movement of black africans, and they are considered one of the most grievous methods that the south african government used to support apartheid.
During apartheid in south africa, could a black person. According to the pass law, government officials possessed the power to make the worker leave the area by giving a bad endorsement in his passbook. Pass laws were one of the darkest traits of the apartheid regime. Apartheid impacted world history through its legitimization of. The first apartheid law was the prohibition of mixed marriages act, 1949, followed closely by the immorality amendment act of 1950, which made it illegal for most south african citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines. Other laws forbade most social contacts between the races, authorized segregated public facilities, established separate educational standards, restricted each race to certain types of. Apartheid natives abolition of passes act 67 of 1952. During apartheid in south africa, could a black person enter. Yes during the day we had a curfew for black folks they had to be outside of white areas after 22h00 or at least off the streets.
The law allowed white people to be in certain areas. For blacks the end of apartheid laws meant that the hated pass system was abolished, that the legality of residential apartheid was removed from the statute book and that antu education was formally ended. A hated law passed during this period was the natives abolition of passes and coordination of documents act of 1952. The pass laws act of 1952 required black south africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book everywhere and at all times. The only law directly challenged in the campaign was the pass law. A history of apartheid in south africa south african. By 1948, segregation of the races had long been the norm. As a result, the dompas became the most despised symbol of the apartheid era.
Nelson mandela burns his pass book in protest of pass laws. Jun 7, 2014 nelson mandela burns his pass book in protest of pass laws in 1952. Pass laws would be one of the dominant features of the countrys apartheid system, until it was effectively ended in 1986. But as journalist allister sparks noted, apartheid, drawing on racist anthropology and racist theology, substituted enforcement for convention. Failure to produce the document on demand to a policeman was a punishable offence. Mar 19, 2015 the unloved apartheid era pass laws act of 1952 insisted that blacks over the age of 16 had to carry a passbook. For anyone interested in primary sources and their significance, this is the source to turn to. Pass laws in south africa 18001994 south african history online.
The book had to be carried at all times, from doctors to academics and laborers. This forced black south africans to carry a range of documents, including a photograph, place of birth, employment records, tax payments and criminal records, and enabled the government to further restrict their movement. Each book introduces the period and the available sources, justifying why we can rely on them, who produced them, or why they have survived. On july 23, 1986, as part of a process of removing some apartheid laws, the south african government lifted the requirement to carry passbooks, although the pass law system itself was not yet repealed. Pass laws were one of the most horrifying policies of the apartheid regime in south africa. The state made the announcement and amended the legislation. Apartheid was a policy of racial discrimination and segregation used in south africa from 1948 to 1994. This existed in the twentieth century, from 1948 until the early1990s.
The purpose was to victimize black south africans even more. Now its time for a quiz conclusion books enforced by the government included detailed personal information about. According to the state university of new york college at cortland, the main laws of south african apartheid included the population registration act, immorality act, group areas act, criminal law amendment act, pass laws act and separate amenities act. Black sash was a human rights organization that came into existence in 1955 and was involved in fighting against the unjust treatment of apartheid regime and vehemently opposed the pass laws. An integral part of the apartheid system, these laws mandated that black africans carry identity documents when in white areas. Popular apartheid books meet your next favorite book. By 1950, the government had banned marriages between whites and people of other races, and prohibited sexual relations between black and white south africans. During apartheid, people were divided into four racial groups and separated by law. It enforced racial discrimination against nonwhites, mainly focused on skin colour and facial features. During each year of apartheid, over 250,000 nonwhites were arrested for technical offenses under the pass laws. The blacks abolition of passes and coordination of documents act no 67 of 1952 commenced 11 july repealed early laws, which differed from province to province, relating to the carrying of passes by black male workers e. Nelson mandela burns his pass book in protest of pass. The passbook system used to suppress black south africans was supplied directly, and later indirectly andor covertly by the american instant picture camera corporation.
You can find absolutely anything related to the racial policies of the apartheidera republic of south africa in this book. The first south african diamond, the eureka, was found in hopetown in 1867. This book would have stipulated where a black south african was allowed to work, and travel during the apartheid era in south africa. Cape town the pass laws act of 1952 required black south africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, known as a dompas, everywhere and. May 09, 2019 anti apartheid protests continued as life for black south africans became more and more dire under apartheid. Translated from the afrikaans meaning apartness, apartheid was the ideology supported by the national party np government and was introduced in south africa in 1948. Baruch hirson, in his book a history of the left in south africa, blames the leaders of the campaign for the way it ended. Zoo station, silesian station, stettin station, potsdam station, lehrter station, and masaryk station and the nonfiction work, sealing their fate. In 1952, the natives act introduced the reference book that included all information from various other documents into it. The history and metamorphosis of this book is long and carries with it a stigma of the past oppression during the struggle of apartheid. What happened automatically before was now codified in. Cape town the pass laws act of 1952 required black south africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, known as a dompas, everywhere and at all times. Apartheid was a political and social system in south africa during the era of white minority rule.
The continuing large number of arrests for passlaw violations 200,000 to 300,000 a year have been interpreted by civil rights activists as a. Apartheid impacted world history through its legitimization of racism and prejudiced ideals. What was the harshest law in south africa during apartheid. An example of the type of pass south african blacks had to carry during apartheid. The natives abolition of passes and coordination of documents act of 1952, commonly known as the pass laws act, repealed the many regional pass laws and instituted one nationwide pass law, which made it compulsory for all black south africans over the age of 16 to carry the passbook at all times within white areas. Laws from south africas apartheid era black and education. These passes often became the most despised symbols of apartheid. Blacks abolition of passes and coordination of documents act. The identification book had a fingerprint of the holder. Apartheid simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The book they couldnt pass without center for the digital globe. The dompas was similar to a passport, but it contained more pages filled with more extensive information than a normal passport. Although racial segregation had long been in practice there, the apartheid name was first used about 1948 to describe the racial segregation policies embraced by the white minority government. Pass laws under apartheid in south africa, the pass laws were designed to act as a segregation tool by limiting the native population from any forms of movement. The unloved apartheidera pass laws act of 1952 insisted that blacks over the age of 16 had to carry a passbook. The purpose of the pass law was to control the movement of black africans. The legislation was one among the dominant characteristics of the apartheid system that was present in the nation within the given period. Pass laws in the transvaal, or south african republic, were intended to force. This technique was known as endorsing out, and could be carried out at any time and for any reason. Before we can look at the history of the apartheid period it is necessary to understand what apartheid was and how it affected people. That policy ended in 1986, and section 21 of the south african constitution.
The stream al jazeera the apartheid, institutionalized from 1948 to 1994, was a means of racial classification and segregation that affected nearly every aspect of life in south. Apr 30, 2017 thanks for the a2a the rules changedsoftened over time but during the days of grand apartheid. Mcanda recalls that she couldnt believe when she heard that she didnt have to carry the pass book anymore. The harsh reality of life under apartheid in south africa. Pass laws, aspect of apartheid blacks hate most, bring. This was done to promote the supposed superiority of whites and to establish the minority white regime. Oct 11, 2016 pass laws were one of the most horrifying policies of the apartheid regime in south africa. Thanks for the a2a the rules changedsoftened over time but during the days of grand apartheid. The group areas act of 1950 established residential and business sections in urban areas for each race, and members of other races were barred from.599 1402 482 1407 1007 4 208 1501 1414 986 146 1298 962 98 840 849 210 1111 954 335 1009 1053 1324 63 1293 669 332 1054 513 1479 629 1256