See epidemiology of neisseria meningitidis infection and bacterial meningitis in children older than one month. Molecular epidemiology of recent belgian isolates of neisseria meningitidis serogroup b. Background meningococcal carriage studies are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of meningococcal disease. Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis were first described in geneva, switzerland, by vieusseux 2 in 1805, and in. Clients who are identified as exposed contacts and recommended to receive postexposure prophylaxis should be directed to an appropriate resource to receive their pep. Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gramnegative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a lifethreatening sepsis. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs. Meningitidis is described as a gramnegative diplococci. Advanced methods and protocols offers a collection of methods and protocols that reflect the development and refinement of several new technologies applied to the meningococcus as presented by expert researchers.
One of the late signs that one bacterial cause of meningitis, neisseria meningitidis, are in your bloodstream is a faint rash on your skin. Neisseria meningitidis belongs to the family neisseriaceae footnote 2. Neisseria meningitidis an overview sciencedirect topics. Full text get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 384k, or click on a page image below to browse page by page. The most common disease caused by neisseria meningitidis is meningococcal meningitis or more commonly known as bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis, meningococcal infection, cerebrospinal fever, meningococcemia.
In children and teens, meningococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusive human pathogen. Neisseria meningitidis is the one with the potential to cause large epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative diplococcus bacterium that is responsible for endemic and epidemic meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia munford 2001. Meningococcal disease is a serious illness caused by the bacterium neisseria meningitidis also known as meningococcus. Invasive neisseria meningitis facts for health professionals surveillance invasive disease caused by neisseria meningitidis includes meningitis, septicemia, and other infections. The closely related pathogens neisseria gonorrhoeae and neisseria meningitidis colonize human mucosal epithelia, however, at different sites in the body. My proposal is on same basis as for meningococcal disease foir which meningococcal meningitis redirects to it, but ill split the proposal in case people feel that one merger has different merits from the other.
It is a gramnegative, nonspore forming, nonmotile, encapsulated, and non acidfast diplococci, which appears in kidney bean shape under the microscope footnote 1. We combined comparative genome hybridization using microarrays mcgh and multilocus sequence typing mlst of 29 meningococcal isolates. Neisseria meningitidis, identification and grouping. The organism was first recognized by weichselbaum in 1887 in the spinal fluid of six patients with acute cerebrospinal meningitis. N meningitidis antigen by ihc specify ihc specimen 1. Strains are serogrouped on the basis of their capsular polysaccharides. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative human pathogen that can cause severe meningitis and septicemia with symptoms that can worsen rapidly. About 15% of people carry these bacteria in their throats without getting sick. Sep 25, 20 three neisseria meningitidis rna thermosensors important for resistance against complementmediated immune killing are identified, located in the 5. Meningococcal disease meningococcal disease is a rare, but very serious illness caused by a type of bacteria called neisseria meningitidis. The bacteria from a meningococcal meningitis infection. Neisseria meningitidis, identification and grouping provider requirements isolate submission required. Meningococcal disease is not very common in the united states, but teens and young adults are at increased risk. Meningococcemia is defined as dissemination of meningococci neisseria meningitidis into the bloodstream see the image below.
The bacteria are able to multiply and form a colony because of its ability to acquire iron from the host. Meningitis arises upon inflammation of the meninges, which consists of the membrane that envelops and protects the central nervous system. The neisseria meningitidis capsule is important for intracellular survival in human cells. Chicago outbreak of meningitis among gay and bisexual men. Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent meningococcal disease. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. Meningococcal disease neisseria meningitidis 2015 case definition recommend on facebook tweet share compartir note. Pathogenesis and immunity article pdf available in current opinion in microbiology 23c. Neisseria meningitidis meningococcal disease is a serious and rapidly progressing illness caused by n.
Neisseria meningitidis is immediately reportable on first knowledge or suspicion of the diagnosis due to the potential need for prophylaxis of close contacts within 24 hours of suspected diagnosis suspicion is normally based on gram stain results see table on page 4. Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus is a gramnegative, oxidasepositive, aerobic, coccal bacterium that appears microscopically under diplococcal arrangement. Pathogenic neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Except for the genes involved in the capsule biosynthesis, which are lacking in the commensal neisseria spp. The meningococci are one of the main causes of meningococcal meningitis.
Neisseria meningitidis is a bacteria that is best known for its role in endemic bacterial meningitis. Feb 04, 2014 this bacteriology lecture will explain the general properties of neisseria meningitidis and it also explains the disease, pathogenesis, and treatment of neisseria meningitidis infection. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Antisera produced in rabbits against seven group c strains by two intravenous inoculations of live organisms. The bacterium neisseria meningitidis, also called meningococcus, causes meningococcal meningitis. The sides are flattened and this organism is recognizable in gram stain by an experienced microscopist. Patients with acute infection can present clinically with 1 meningitis, 2 meningitis with meningococcemia, or 3 meningococcemia without obvious meningitis. Populationbased surveillance of neisseria meningitidis. It can grow on both a blood agar plate bap and a chocolate.
A surveillance case definition is a set of uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. However, the incidence is highest in the late winter and early spring. Geographic distribution and epidemic potential differ according to serogroup. Materials and methods a total of 1459 oropharyngeal. A bactericidal assay is described which allows identification of distinct serotypes within a serogroup of neisseria meningitidis. Bei neisseria meningitidis handelt es sich um kleine durchmesser 1m. Characterization of carriage isolates of neisseria. The fact that this bacteria is gram negative means that there is very little or no peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that can infect diverse sites within the human host. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of meningococcal carriage and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of isolates collected from a sample of students in the city of bogota, colombia. When a single instance of neisseria meningitidis occurs, the state and county health departments work together to insure that appropriate contacts obtain antibiotics. Reports of anogenital disease caused by neisseria meningitidis are uncommon, and occasional anogenital isolates found in otherwise healthy individuals are generally held to be incidental findings that do not require treatment. Epidemiology of neisseria meningitidis infection uptodate.
Population structure and capsular switching of invasive neisseria meningitidis isolates in the premeningococcal conjugate vaccine eraunited states, 20002005. Only people who have been in close contact with saliva or respiratory. Antimicrobial treatment and chemoprophylaxis for patients with meningococcal disease and their close contacts is critical. Household transmission of neisseria meningitidis in the. Identification of a new neisseria meningitidis serogroup c clone from anhui province, china. Neisseria meningitidis wikipedia, a enciclopedia livre. Neisseria meningitidis are bacteria that can cause meningococcal disease, a very severe form of meningitis andor blood infection. Neisseria meningitidis haemophilus influenzae streptococcus pneumoniae streptococcus pyogenes group a strep neisseria meningitidis is immediately reportable on first knowledge or suspicion of the diagnosis due to the potential need for prophylaxis of close contacts within 24 hours of suspected diagnosis suspicion is. Suggestion merge meningococcemia to neisseria meningitidis. There are more than 500,000 reported cases of meningococcal disease per year, with an estimated annual death toll of 5,000 zimmer and stephens 2004. Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of communityacquired bacterial meningitis in children and adults in the united states and in many other countries.
Most carrier isolates are shown to lack capsule production. We combined comparative genome hybridization using microarrays mcgh and multilocus sequence typing. Neisseria meningitidis is an aerobic, gramnegative diplococcus that causes meningococcal diseases such as meningococcemia and bacterial meningitis. Three species of bacteria, streptococcus pneumonia, haemophilus influenzae and neisseria meningitidis figure 1, are known to cause this infection. Neisseria meningitidis, pcr provider requirements isolate submission or primary sample of csf acceptable specimen sourcestypes for submission culture isolate isolates from normally sterile sites csf tdh requisition form number ph4182 media requirements pure culture specimens transported on agar plates or slants csf. Csf, blood are to be investigated in accordance with the communicable disease reporting rule 410 iac 12. The bacteria are spherical, ranging in diameter from 0. Clonal expansion of new penicillinresistant clade of. Acceptable specimen sourcestypes for submission culture isolate isolates from normally sterile sites tdh requisition form number ph4182 media requirements chocolate slant special instructions shipping instructions. Ciprofloxacin, administered to adults in a single oral dose is effective in.
Here, we analyze on a genomewide level the impact of recombination on genecomplement diversity and virulence evolution in n. Neisseria meningitidis will attach to the microvilli of nonciliated columnar epithelial cells that reside in the nasal region of humans. Anton weichselbaum discovered meningococcus, also known as neisseria meningitidis, the bacterium that causes meningitis. Description and nomenclature of neisseria meningitidis. Temperature triggers immune evasion by neisseria meningitidis. Clinical features and diagnosis, section on causative organisms and. There are a number of viral and bacterial causes of meningitis, but neisseria meningitidis is the most common cause of the more serious bacterial meningitis in children who are most susceptible to the disease, and one of the most common in adults. Background neisseria meningitidis is a naturally transformable, facultative pathogen colonizing the human nasopharynx. Meningococcal disease invasive clinician fact sheet. Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae. Chapter 7 identification and characterization of neisseria. Some of the most common bacteria known to cause meningitis are described below. Characterization of motility and piliation in pathogenic.
Research description and nomenclature of neisseria. He called it diplococcus intracellularis meningitidis because of the presence of the organism within leukocytes from the spinal fluid. See the article acute urethritis due to neisseria meningitidis group a acquired by orogenital contact. Meningococcal disease is a serious infection caused by serotypes a, b, c, w5 and y of the bacteria, neisseria meningitidis. Virulence evolution of the human pathogen neisseria. The investigation shall include collecting case information, obtaining laboratory. Liquor, blut, material aus hauteffloreszenzen, oropharyngeale. The epidemiology of neisseria meningitidis is dynamic, with risk of meningococcal disease varying widely by region and depending on a confluence of host, organism, and environmental factors. Other articles where meningococcal meningitis is discussed. Several of the chapters in this book describe methods that rely on the collection of complete sets of.
Meningokokken, invasive erkrankungen neisseria meningitidis rki. Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus muhninggohkokus. Who laboratory methods for the diagnosis of meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis the meningococcus causes significant morbidity and mortality in children and young adults worldwide through epidemic or sporadic meningitis andor septicemia. Rahman mm, kolli vs, kahler cm et al 2000 the membrane phospholipids of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria gonorrhoeae as characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Neisserial motility is enabled by type iv pili tfp, which are long and dynamic filaments expressed by a phylogenetically diverse set of bacterial species, such as pseudomonas aeruginosa, vibrio cholerae, legionella pneumophila. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis. This manual summarizes laboratory techniques used in the isolation and identification of neisseria meningitidis the meningococcus, streptococcus pneumoniae. A small proportion of infected people can develop a serious form of illness, such as meningitis inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord or a bloodstream infection septicemia. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative, either an encapsulated or unencapsulated, aerobic diplococcus with a kidney or coffeebean shape. In western australia, neisseria meningitidis serogroup w clonal complex 11 became the predominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in 2016. Abcs personnel routinely contacted all microbiology laboratories serving acute care hospitals in their area to identify cases.
There is a polysaccharide capsule surrounding the organism. Even if treated quickly, meningococcal disease can cause longterm problems or be deadly. Weichselbaum 1 was the first to culture meningococcus from patients with meningitis in 1887. Neisseria meningitidis is a fastidious, gramnegative, endotoxinproducing organism that is a normal commensal of the human nasopharynx.
Appropriate suspending vehicle or syrup vehicle can be used for liquid suspension rifampin orders. Chemoprophylaxis of healthcare workers exposed to neisseria meningitidis 11 recommendations for the management of laboratory worker exposed to n. The disease usually comes on quickly with severe headaches, high fever, pain and stiffness of the neck, back, and shoulders and nausea follows shortly after all of these. The 2,272,351base pair genome of neisseria meningitidis strain mc58 serogroup b, a causative agent of meningitis and septicemia, contains 2158 predicted coding regions, 1158 53.
Chapter 7 identification and characterization of neisseria meningitidis. During periods of endemic disease, about 10 % of the general population harbour neisseria meningitidis in the nasopharynx. Such isolates are infrequent in our clinic setting but an unexpected increase of 4 genital n. Meningococcal infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, therefore understanding their molecular biology is crucial to develop therapeutics such as vaccines. Because transmission of n meningitidis results mainly in asymptomatic carriage, evaluation of oropharyngeal carriage can be helpful to understand the epidemiology and. An unexpected increase in neisseria meningitidis genital. In sepsis, skin hemorrhages are the hallmark of invasive meningococcal disease. Routine throat or nasopharyngeal culture of contacts is not helpful in determining who warrants chemoprophylaxis. The epidemiology and serogroup distribution can change very quickly. Neisseria meningitidis is remarkable for the diversity of interactions that the bacterium has with the human host, ranging from asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonisation affecting virtually all members of the population. New classification of neisseria meningitidis by means of. Diagnosis and prevention of neisseria meningitides induced. Meningococcus, the bacterium neisseria meningitidis, which causes meningococcal meningitis in humans, who are the only natural hosts in which it causes disease.284 913 338 779 1406 1014 1580 1188 491 78 1053 1448 712 333 153 1260 699 266 338 646 266 1034 536 1107 221 1144 461 758 1554 1032 778 508 1309 1592 1324 731 361 620 1096 275 550 290 23 839 965 555